A waterfall occurs where water flows over a vertical drop or series of drops in the course of a river or stream. They can also be ephemeral, only flowing intermittently when heavy precipitation occurs.  

 

There are a wide variety of different waterfall types that include ledge (block/sheet, classical, curtain); plunge; horsetail (slide, ribbon, chute); cascade; tiered/staircase; cataract; segmented; frozen and moulin (glacier).  The waterfall types are based on width of stream, height of fall, speed and volume and the bedrock geology (e.g. is it a straight drop, is it a series of smaller waterfalls, is it rock steps.)
 

As the water flows downstream, based on sediment type and amount that it carries, erosion will occur.  A hard bedrock to the river will cause the erosion to be slower. Over time, the waterfall will retreat upstream. This can occur at the rate of 1.5 metres per year based on volume and sediment types being carried downstream.  

Where there is soft rock under a layer of hard rock on the river bed, over time, the splashback from the falling water will erode the softer layer causing a rock shelter to form behind the waterfall.  As this erosion continues, an outcropping of the harder rock occurs.  This adds blocks of rock to the plunge pool at the base of the waterfall which as they are broken into smaller boulders and carried downstream, deepen the plunge pool effect in the downstream gorge

Sometimes whirlpools (caused when two currents going in opposite directions meet) can create "potholes" in the river as the whirlpool spins stones around at a high speed creating a 'drilling effect'  

In addition to erosion, other geological forces can cause the formation of waterfalls including earthquakes, landslides, glaciers and volcanoes.

Waterfalls have been harnessed by humans to create energy to power things from early grain grinding mills to hydro-electric power.  In addition, waterfalls can be an obstacle on rivers that are used as transportation routes for people or goods.  In such situations, either canals have been built to bypass the fall and/or portaging may be required.  

[Information sourced online from National Geographic Encyclopedia and from Wikipedia]

Related Wildwood Cards:

Major Arcana

 

Card 0:  The Wanderer (curtain waterfall)

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WATERFALL

Kakabeka Falls, Ontario   

 

Kakabeka is an Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwe) word gakaabikaa, meaning “waterfall over a cliff”

A waterfall occurs where water flows over a vertical drop or series of drops in the course of a river or stream. They can also be ephemeral, only flowing intermittently when heavy precipitation occurs.  

 

There are a wide variety of different waterfall types that include ledge (block/sheet, classical, curtain); plunge; horsetail (slide, ribbon, chute); cascade; tiered/staircase; cataract; segmented; frozen and moulin (glacier).  The waterfall types are based on width of stream, height of fall, speed and volume and the bedrock geology (e.g. is it a straight drop, is it a series of smaller waterfalls, is it rock steps.)
 

As the water flows downstream, based on sediment type and amount that it carries, erosion will occur.  A hard bedrock to the river will cause the erosion to be slower. Over time, the waterfall will retreat upstream. This can occur at the rate of 1.5 metres per year based on volume and sediment types being carried downstream.  

Where there is soft rock under a layer of hard rock on the river bed, over time, the splashback from the falling water will erode the softer layer causing a rock shelter to form behind the waterfall.  As this erosion continues, an outcropping of the harder rock occurs.  This adds blocks of rock to the plunge pool at the base of the waterfall which as they are broken into smaller boulders and carried downstream, deepen the plunge pool effect in the downstream gorge

Sometimes whirlpools (caused when two currents going in opposite directions meet) can create "potholes" in the river as the whirlpool spins stones around at a high speed creating a 'drilling effect'  

In addition to erosion, other geological forces can cause the formation of waterfalls including earthquakes, landslides, glaciers and volcanoes.

Waterfalls have been harnessed by humans to create energy to power things from early grain grinding mills to hydro-electric power.  In addition, waterfalls can be an obstacle on rivers that are used as transportation routes for people or goods.  In such situations, either canals have been built to bypass the fall and/or portaging may be required.  

[Information sourced online from National Geographic Encyclopedia and from Wikipedia]

Related Wildwood Cards:

Major Arcana

 

Card 0:  The Wanderer (curtain waterfall)

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